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Chemical equations involved:

1) Reaction between NaOH and water

$${NaOH(s)+H2O(l)->{Na}^+_{(aq)} + OH^-_{(aq)} + \triangle (HEAT)}$$

2) Reaction between CaO and water

$${CaO(s) + H2O(l) ->Ca(OH)2(aq) + \triangle(HEAT)}$$

Similarities:
1) Both of the equations are exothermic. It means a lot of heat is evolved during the reaction.
2) Both reactions from strong basic solutions.
Differences :
1) Sodium Hydroxide is a strong base dissociates to form Na⁺ and OH⁻ ion. While Calcium oxide added water to form Calcium Hydroxide which further dissociates.
2) NaOH is a monoacidic base. and CaO is a Di-Acidic base.

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