(i) Potential difference, V = 6 V
1 Ω and 2 Ω resistors are connected in series. Therefore, equivalent resistance of the circuit, R = 1 + 2 = 3 Ω
According to Ohm’s law,
V = IR
I is the current through the circuit
I= 6/3 = 2 A
This current will flow through each component of the circuit because there is no division of current in series circuits. Hence, current flowing through the 2 Ω resistor is 2 A. Power is given by the expression,
P= (I)2R = (2)2 x 2 = 8 W
(ii) Potential difference, V = 4 V
12 Ω and 2 Ω resistors are connected in parallel. The voltage across each component of a parallel circuit remains the same. Hence, the voltage across 2 Ω resistor will be 4 V.
Power consumed by 2 Ω resistor is given by
P= V2/R = 42/2 = 8 W
Therefore, the power used by 2 Ω resistor is 8 W.