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Explain the underlying principle and working of an electric generator by drawing a labelled diagram. What is the function of brushes?
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Principle: An electric generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction phenomenon. According to it, whenever a coil is rotated between the poles of a magnet, an induced current is set up in the coil, whose direction is given by Fleming’s right hand rule.

Working: Let in the beginning, as shown in Fig. brushes B1 and B2 are kept pressed separately on rings R1 and R2 respectively. Let the axle attached to the rings is rotated such that arm AB of the coil moves up and arm CD moves down in the magnetic field. Due to rotation of arms AB and CD induced currents are set up in them. As per Fleming’s right hand rule induced currents in these arms are along the directions AB and CD. Thus an induced current flows along ABCD and current in the external circuit flows from B2 to B1.
After half a rotation, arm AB starts moving down and the arm CD upward. Therefore, directions of induced currents in these arms change. Thus net induced current now becomes in the direction DCBA. In the external circuit now current flows from B1 to B2. Thus after every half rotation current changes its direction and an alternating current is obtained from the generator.


Function of Brushes: Brushes are kept pressed on the two slip rings separately. Outer ends of the brushes are connected to the galvanometer (or the external load). Thus brushes help in transferring current from the coil ABCD to the external circuit.

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