Why do HCl, HNO3, etc., show acidic characters in aqueous solutions while solutions of compounds like alcohol and glucose do not show acidic character?
When HCl or HNO3 are mixed with water then they dissolve in water to form H+ or H3O+ ions which shows their acidic character. For example just see the following reactions
HCl (aq) → H+ + Cl-
H+ + H2O → H3O+
When alcohols and glucose are mixed with water then they do not dissolve to form ions. Hence they do not show acidic character.